The use of bioclimatic design techniques is crucial for the energy behavior of a home. This term describes the design, which, taking into account the local climate, achieves optimum interior comfort conditions, utilizing the available natural resources and minimum energy consumption. Basic techniques of bioclimatic design are
- the thermal protection of the housing shell
- use of passive solar heating and cooling systems (sun protection, natural and hybrid ventilation systems) and
- use of natural lighting systems
The thermal protection of the housing shell is ensured by the use of suitable building and insulation materials for adequate thermal insulation (external thermal insulation system), the use of high reflectivity coatings, the avoidance of bridges using double energy glazing and the airtight windows, losses.
Passive solar heating systems utilize solar energy to meet the thermal needs of a home's premises, in the correct orientation of the openings. The south-facing openings receive the most sunlight in the winter and are recommended for places with a greater need for heating.
Passive cooling systems reduce the thermal loads of the home during the summer months, with proper orientation and proper shading of the openings. Natural ventilation contributes to the cooling of the home, using mechanical means such as ceiling fans (hybrid systems) delivering the desired result with very low energy consumption.
Solar radiation can naturally serve the needs for lighting. The adequacy of natural lighting and its distribution depend on the geometry of the openings and the illuminated space, but also on the photometric characteristics of opaque surfaces, such as their color and type of glass (reflectivity, luminosity).
For central heating and cooling systems, proper and regular maintenance and proper insulation of their parts are essential. Also, the use of automation, such as thermostatic switches and timers, ensures a low cost of purchase, significantly reducing fuel and energy consumption.
Energy-saving technologies using renewables are widespread. In the domestic sector, such applications for water heating or warming are solar panels, which exploit solar radiation and geothermal pumps that exploit the constant high ground temperature.
Last but not least, significant energy-saving features provide cases of fireplaces and central heating boilers with increased energy efficiency that recover significant amounts of heat from the exhaust gases and provide them for water or air heating.